The solar system has eight planets, from Mercury to Pluto. They are, in order from the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
The biggest planet is Jupiter, the smallest is Mercury. Jupiter is made of mostly hydrogen and helium—it does not have a solid surface. Neptune is also mainly composed of liquid and gas, but it also has a small solid core. The planets are orbited by smaller objects called moons.
At a distance of 230 million kilometers from the Sun, Mars is the fourth smallest planet in terms of distance from the Sun and second in mass after Mercury.
The physical composition of Mars.
Mars has a diameter (area) of about half that of Earth, while its surface area is about the same as that of Earth’s landmass. Its volume is 15% less than Earth’s and its mass is 11% less than Earth’s, while its gravity is 38% less than Earth’s.
The red color of Mars is due to iron oxide iron(III) oxide, and it has green, brown, and golden colors on its surface.
The Internal Structure of Mars.
Like the Earth, Mars has a core that is covered with relatively few elements, mainly iron and nickel, with 16 to 17 percent sulfur, with a silicate mantle on top, while the Martian crust is composed of iron, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, and potassium.
While a 4.81 km crater was found near the south pole of Mars, which contained 2200 cubic km of frozen water.
While Mars has the largest volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons, which can be 21 to 27 km high.
While Valles Marineris, the largest canyon in the solar system, is also on Mars, with a length of up to 4000 km, which is almost the size of Europe.
Mars shed its magnetosphere about 4 billion years ago, so the solar wind hits its ionosphere almost directly, and its atmosphere is now mostly ionized carbon dioxide.
The atmosphere of Mars is 96% carbon dioxide 93 1% argon 89 1% nitrogen and very small amounts of oxygen are also found.
While atmospheric pressure is different everywhere, for example, 600 pascals on the surface, 30 pascals on volcanoes, and 1155 pascals on Hellas Planitia.
Season of Mars
Compared to all the planets, Mars has a climate similar to that of Earth, while the duration of the season is twice that of Earth
The lowest recorded temperature on Mars is −143 °C and the highest recorded temperature is 35 °C.
Mars receives 43% less light from the Sun than Earth. Mars has large cyclones with speeds of up to 160 km/h.
Axis Orbit and rotation.
The distance of Mars from the Sun is 230 million km whereas the Martian year consists of 687 days and a day is 24 hours and 39 minutes.
Mars has a tilt of 19•25 degrees on its axis۔
Venus is the second planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the sun. Its distance from the sun is 67,237,910 miles. It is named after the Roman goddess of beauty. It is the second brightest object in the atmosphere after the sun. It can be seen before sunrise or before sunset.
The Orbit of Mars Around the Sun
The planet Venus rotates in the reverse direction around the Sun compared to all other planets. It rotates around the Sun for 7 • 224 days and around its axis for 243 days. That is, the Sun rises in the West and sets in the East.
Area:- Surface area of Venus is 4.6023×108 km2 and the mass is 4.8675×1024 kg while the density is 5.243/cm3 and gravity is 8.87 m/s2.
Physical Structure: Venus is slightly smaller than Earth in terms of structure. Smaller ones make up 80% of Earth by mass
The inner core of Venus is 2,400 miles wide and 1,200 miles thick. The crust of Venus is composed mostly of basalt and is 10 to 12 miles thick.
Atmosphere on Venus
Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system, reaching a temperature of 471 degrees Celsius. Its atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide, which is 96%, and the pressure is 90 times that of Earth.
Research:- The first spacecraft was Mariner 2 which was passed by Venus in 1962. Followed by December 1970! Venera 7 landed on Venus. 2014 May Venus Express burned up the upper atmosphere of Venus. In late May 2019, NASA launched the Venera-D mission to Venus.
Earth is the third planet in the solar system. It is the only planet on which life exists. The distance from the Sun to the Earth is 150 million km and the mass is (24)10*97237•5 kg while the diameter is 1.08321×1012 km3.
The Earth has a tilt of 2.23 degrees on its axis, which causes the seasons to change.\
The distance of the Earth from the Sun is 150 million km, so the Earth completes one revolution around the Sun in 365.2564 days. Earth’s orbital speed is 29.78 km/s (107,200 km/h).
Earth is the only planet in the solar system where life is possible and where the temperature is not so high that life will die from the heat and you will freeze to death. I will write an article about it
Weather of Earth
The average temperature of the earth is 6•14 cm.
Space on Earth
Earth’s atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other elements.
The physical structure of Earth
The outer part of the Earth, which is made of silicate crystallite, consists of its lower mantle and molten core, and the iron-rich core that forms the mitotic field.